Monday, August 9, 2010

The Big Google Search Tools Collection

Google indexes and searches billions of webpages and is the premier search engine on the internet. A quick analysis of the search page is helpful to understand and analyze the search results. Learn the essentials of Google Search and remember to set your preferences.

Official Google Search Tools

Special Searches

  • Google Video – Search TV programs and videos
  • Google Image Search – comprehensive image search on the web
  • Google Music Search – search for music
  • Google Book Search – Search the full text of books (and discover new ones).
  • Google Catalogs – helps you browse and search merchant-provided catalogs
  • Froogle – Google’s shopping search engine
  • Google News – Search and browse 4,500 news sources
  • Google News archive search – provides an easy way to search and explore historical archives.
  • Google Scholar – search for the most relevant research across the world of scholarly research.
  • Google Patent Search – find the full text of the U.S. patent corpus and find patents that interest you.
  • Google Maps – View maps, get driving directions, and search for local businesses and services.
  • Google Public Service Search – offers educational institutions and non-profit organizations worldwide free SiteSearch, which enables users to search your website, and free WebSearch, which enables users to search the Internet.
  • Google’s University Search – enables you to narrow your search to a specific school website for things like admissions information, course schedules, or alumni news.
  • Google Ride Finder – view taxi or shuttle locations in several cities.
  • Google Base – submit all types of online and offline content that is hosted and made searchable online.

Google Topic Specific Search

Google For Webmasters

  • Google AdSense for search – Opportunity to earn money by Google whenever your users click on the targeted Google adsense ads on search results pages.
  • Google Free – provide Google search results to users who want to search the web or just your website.
  • Google Custom Search Engine - Specify the websites that you want searched and integrate the search box and results into your own website.
  • Site-flavored Google search – delivers web search results that are customized to individual websites.
  • Customizable Google Search – you can customize your results display to include background, text and link colors you select.
  • Google Search Appliance – is a hardware and software product designed to offer large businesses the productivity-enhancing power of Google search.
  • Google Mini � Google search for your website and intranet

Google Desktop Search Tools

  • Google Deskbar – Search using Google without opening your browser
  • Google Desktop – a desktop search application that provides full text search over your email, files, music, photos, chats, Gmail, web pages that you’ve viewed.

Google Mobile Search Services

Google Search Toolbars

Third Party Google Search Tools

Search Google with Firefox Extensions

  • CustomizeGoogle – enhances Google search results by adding extra information (like links to Yahoo, Ask Jeeves, MSN etc) and removing unwanted information (like ads and spam).
  • Googlebar Lite – A light-weight Google search toolbar for Firefox.
  • GoogleTabs – Adds a context menu option to open Google search results in tabs.
  • Advanced Dork – Highlight a word or phrase, right click, and choose from over 15 Advanced Google Operators, A google search page is opened in either the same tab or a new tab, the results contained in the search will contain the highlighted text inside the chosen Operator.
  • GooglePreview – Inserts preview images (thumbnails) of web sites and Amazon products into the Google and Yahoo search results pages.
  • Feeling Lucky – Performs Google’s “I’m Feeling Lucky” search with any selected text and opens the result in new a tab.
  • Aggregate Yahoo! and Google – Search Yahoo and Google simultaneously
  • GooglebarL10N – is the localized version of Googlebar with Menues & Texts in German, Italian or Spanish.
  • Google Advanced Operations Toolbar – provides a shortcut to some of Google’s advanced search functions.

Google Page Modules / Scripts / Widgets / Bookmarklets

Multi Search Tools

  • Simply Google – search all Google services on one page. Lots of forms.
  • HotDaddy – search all Google services on one page. Lots of icons.
  • Google Total – search all Google services on one page. Drop down menu.
  • GahooYoogle – search multiple Google and Yahoo services together side by side.
  • Twingine – Google and Yahoo search side by side.
  • Soople – performs all advanced search functions of google in separate forms

Miscellaneous Google Search Tools

  • Google Cloud – displays search results as a tag cloud
  • Babelplex – enables users to search Google’s web index across two languages.
  • Google Current – airs every half hour on Current TV and provides a look at what the world is searching for on Google.
  • Googlewhack – a query consisting of two words (without quotation marks) entered into Google’s search page that returns a single result.
  • Cookin’ With Google – allows you to provide a list of ingredients and get back a list of recipes that Google finds for you.
  • Goofresh – is a way to search for sites added today, yesterday, within the last seven days, or last 30 days.
  • Google Fight – Compare the number of results for two competing keywords.
  • GoogleDuel – a popularity contest using the Google search engine.
  • Random Web Search – it generates a random word, then searches that word on the web using Google.
  • Googlematic – Enables searching of Google via AIM or MSN Messenger.
  • Googlism – will find out what thinks of you
  • Google Tool – Search multiple google datacenters simultaneously.
  • elgooG – a mirror image of Google
  • LostGoggles – adds search site preview images, Amazon pricing, site info links and the Open-in-New-Window-button. Formerly “More Google”.
In the end, this amazing list of Google Web Search Features lists the many special features to help you to find exactly what you’re looking for. Google Zeitgeist lists the current Google Search patterns, trends, and surprises.

Amazing YouTube Video Tools Collection

This is a collection of the best Youtube tools, hacks, mashups and top ways to download Youtube videos. YouTube is the most popular site to share your favorite videos. Recently YouTube was acquired by Google for a few billion dollars. Here is a collection of several YouTube third party tools which enhance your YouTube experience.

Save and Download YouTube Videos

  • Delutube – Lets you view deleted Youtube videos.
  • Video Downloader – a firefox extension that allows you to download youtube videos to your computer from YouTube and most video sites.
  • YouTubeX – allows you to save and download YouTube videos easily using only your IE or firefox browser.
  • TubeSock – grabs YouTube videos from the web and copies them to your video iPod, Mac, or PlayStation Portable.
  • VideoDL – is a quick AJAX application that allows you to download online video into your computer. It supports top 3 video sites – YouTube, Google Video, and
  • Download YouTube via bookmarklets – A collection of Greasemonkey scripts and bookmarklets to do the job.
  • Youtube-dl – is a small command-line program to download videos from It requires the Python interpreter, version 2.4 or later.
  • KeepVid – Download videos direct from most video sites like YouTube.
  • YouTube Downloader – enter url and download YouTube videos.
  • Youtube Grabber – is a free tool that downloads FLV files from youtube.
  • GooTube FLV Retriever – enter the video page URL, download the youtube video.
  • Capture Youtube and Google videos - save them as AVI files encoded in the MPEG4 format, using only one command.
  • YouRipper – a freeware software which enables you to download videos from the YouTube and Google Video
  • Save YouTube Videos – paste the youtube video url and download the video.

Top Youtube Third party tools

  • Splicd – lets you isolate an interesting clip from a YouTube video and provides you with a link to share it with your family, friends, and colleagues.
  • YouTube Userscripts – a collection of scripts to perform several tasks with YouTube.
  • Youtube Video Slideshow – insert a username or a video tag below and it starts a slideshow.
  • fTube – a YouTube player that downloads the list of 25 most recent videos featured on the YouTube front page. The user can select a video from the list and hit the play button to play it in-Flash.
  • TubeCH – YouTube flash player.
  • iTube – grab Youtube videos, then convert and import them into iTunes. Requires .Net framework and works exclusively on Windows.
  • TvTube – For Mac users. Allows you to browse YouTube, Google Video and Yahoo Videos, for movie clips that people upload, choose your favorite clips and add them to your shared library.
  • YouTube API Extraction Tool – PHP script that taps into the YouTube API to deliver videos by tag, by username or what’s a current favorite.
  • YouTube Widget – brings all of YouTubes videos to your Mac Dashboard.
  • Search The Tube – A quick way to find videos for your website, blog or profile.
  • YoutubeCrazyVideos – A Youtube videos desktop player. Freeware.
  • IndexTube – categorized and browsable index of the publicly available Youtube videos.
  • YouTube Podcaster – makes Podcast feed from your submitted keyword or url. The feed is made up from embedded youtube video IDs and all videos are converted to the MP4 file format.
  • MemoriesOnWeb – freeware photo slideshow software for YouTube.
  • Overstream – lets you add subtitles to online videos.

Integrate YouTube In Your Site or Blog

  • YouTube badge maker – will show your viewers images of your 6 most recently uploaded videos.
  • YouTube WordPress Plugin – Display YouTube videos on your WordPress blog according to Tags.
  • YouTube Video Gallery WordPress Plugin – displays a gallery of videos from
  • WordPress Related Videos Plugin – Uses tags to look for related videos on YouTube, displays the three most recent related videos on your WordPress blog post and updates videos automatically.
  • WordPress Favourite YouTube Videos – WordPress plugin / widget to display, in a very configurable manner, your latest favorite videos from Youtube.
  • Viper�s Video Quicktags – WP plugin that easily generates codes for copy / pasting to embed videos from sites like YouTube and Google Video or for self-hosted videos into your posts.
  • WP-FLV – WordPress plugin simplfies the process of inserting flash video files (FLV) inside a WordPress post or page.
  • TubePress – a highly configurable WordPress plugin that displays YouTube videos in an embedded gallery in posts and/or pages.

Top / Best YouTube Videos Services

  • PureVideo – collects top 10 videos from around the web
  • The World Internet TV charts – tracks the most popular video clips from four leading Internet TV sites.
  • Top YouTube Videos – a daily updated selection of the most popular videos from YouTube.
  • Vidspedia – is a collection of the best Google and YouTube videos, submitted and rated by users.
  • Youtube top-rated – a coverpop with the 1,001 top rated videos from YouTube updated every week.
  • Best of YouTube – a blog selecting the best Youtube videos.
  • Viral Video Chart – tracks the world’s most blogged about videos including GooTube and MySpace.

Linux Services

* ConsoleKit
The ConsoleKit maintains a list of sessions and therefore is useful if you use Fast User Switching. If you use gdm and Gnome leave this enabled.

* NetworkManager, NetworkManagerDispathcer

NetworkManager provides automatic network detection and configuration for the system. It is useful for modern laptops, where the user may move between wireless networks, and plug in to a variety of wired networks. Unless you are such a userdisable it.

* anacron
Anacron can be used to execute commands periodically.  Unlike cron, it does not assume that the machine is running continuously.  Hence, it can be used on machines that aren't running 24 hours a day, to control daily, weekly, and monthly jobs that are usually controlled by cron. Leave it enabled.

* atd
atd runs jobs queued for later execution.

* auditd
auditd starts the Linux Auditing System Daemon. Leave it enabled especially if you are using SELinux.

* autofs
If you use removable disks such as usb sticks and usb hard drives leave this enabledto allow them be automounted.

* avahi-daemon
Unless you use ZeroConf stuff disable this.

* bluetooth
Unless you use bluetooth devices disable this.

* capi
Unless you have ISDN hardware disable this.

* cpuspeed
If your cpu allows throttling leave this enabled.

* crond
Scheduled tasks similar to anacron. Leave this enabled.

* cups
This controls Common UNIX Printing System. If you have a printer leave thisenabled.

* dund
This is a Bluetooth Dial-Up-Networking Daemon. Unless you use one of that disableit.

* firstboot
Well, you have done your first boot, haven't you? So disable it.

* gpm
Mouse support in terminal. Unless you use it disable it.

* haldaemon
Daemon for collecting and maintaing information about hardware. It should beenabled.

* httpd
Unless you run an apache HTTP web server, disable this.

* ip6tables
IPv6 firewall. Unless you run using IPv6 (most users don't) disable this.

* iptables
This is the Linux Firewall. If you are contected to a Network/Internet leave thisenabled.

* irda
This controls infrared adaptors. Unless you have one disable it.

* irqbalance
If you have a multi-core cpu, such as Core2Duo or AMD X2 leave this enabled.

* isdn
Unless you have ISDN hardware disable it.

* kudzu
This checks for new hardware pluged into your computer. Unless you change your hardware set it disabled.

* lisa
It provides something like a "network neighbourhood", but only relying on the TCP/IP protocol stack. If you use Samba or NFS set this disabled.

* lm_sensors
Monitors motherboard sensor values. Leave it enabled.

* mdmonitor
If you use software RAID or LVM leave it enabled.

* messagebusSystem messenger that communicates with dbus. Leave it enabled.

* nasdNetwork Audio System Deamon. Leave it enabled.

* netconsoleInitializes network console logging. Leave it disabled.

* netfsMounts and unmounts network filesystems such as NFS and Samba automatically. Unless you use Shared Files set it disabled.

* netplugdnetplugd is a daemon for managing non-static network interfaces. Leave it disabled.

* network
It controles ethernet and wireless network devices. Leave it enabled unless you are not using any of these cards.

* nfs, nfslockUnless you have a Linux-Linux LAN disable those.

* nscd
It handles passwd and group lookups for running programs. You should start this daemon if you use slow naming services like NIS, NIS+, LDAP, or hesiod. In any other case leave it disabled

* ntpd
The Network Time Protocol (NTP) is used to synchronize the time of a computer to reference time source. Leave this enabled unless you have a dual boot system in which Windows controls system time.

* nvidia
This script will check if a nvidia kernel module is present for the running kernel and modify the xorg.conf to  the appropriate configuration. If you have an nVidia card this should be enabled.

* pandBluetooth Personal Area Networking Daemon. Provides network services over Bluetooth. Unless you use such services disable it.

* pcscdResource manager for the PC/SC lite and Musclecard frameworks. Unless you use such cards disable it.

* rdiscThis discovers routers on the local subnet. Disable it.

* readahead_early, readahead_laterLoads into memory programs before they are needed. Leave it enabled if you want applications to start faster.

* restorecond
restorecond uses inotify to look for creation of new files listed in the /etc/selinux/restorecond.conf file, and restores the correct security context. If you use SELinux leave it enabled.

* rpcbind, rpcgssd, rpcidmapd, rpcsvcgssdUnless you use NFS v4 set those services disabled.

* rsyslogIt logs system messages. Leave it enabled.

* saslauthdHandles plaintext authentication requests on behalf of the cyrus-sasl library. If you don't need something like that set it disabled.

* sendmailUnless you want to run a Mail Server set it disabled.

* setroubleshootThis starts the SELinux Troubleshooting Daemon. If you use SELinux leave itenabled.

* smartd
Self Monitoring and Reporting Technology (SMART) Daemon. It is recommended this to be enabled but it won't harm you if you disable it.

* smoltIt enables monthly update of Smolt. If you are willing to help Fedora with your system statiscs leave it enabled. Otherwise disable this.

* sshdSSH Server. It allows users to remotely log into your computer. Unless you need this set it disabled.

* wpa_supplicant
This is a wap supplicant with support for WPA and WPA2 (IEEE 802.11i / RSN). If you have a wireless card leave this enabled. Otherwise disable it.

* ypbind
This is a daemon which runs on NIS/YP clients and binds them to a NIS domain. It must be running for systems based on glibc to work as NIS clients. If you are not using NIS disable it.

* yum-updatesd
This daemon periodically checks for updates. If you want to be notified for new updates leave it enabled. However many times that you try to use yum you may get an error about another pid running because of that service.


Successful Client Requests
203Non-Authorative Information
204No Content
205Reset Content
206Partial Content
Client Request Redirected
300Multiple Choices
301Moved Permanently
302Moved Temporarily
303See Other
304Not Modified
305Use Proxy
Client Request Errors
400Bad Request
401Authorization Required
402Payment Required (not used yet)
404Not Found
405Method Not Allowed
406Not Acceptable (encoding)
407Proxy Authentication Required 
408Request Timed Out
409Conflicting Request
411Content Length Required
412Precondition Failed
413Request Entity Too Long
414Request URI Too Long
415Unsupported Media Type
Server Errors
500Internal Server Error
501Not Implemented
502Bad Gateway 
503Service Unavailable 
504Gateway Timeout 
505HTTP Version Not Supported

Software Vs Hardware RAID

A redundant array of inexpensive disks (RAID) allows high levels of storage reliability. RAID is not a backup solution. It is used to improve disk I/O (performance) and reliability of your server or workstation. A RAID can be deployed using both software and hardware. But the real question is whether you should use a hardware RAID solution or a software RAID solution.
In this post I will document my experience with both software and hardware RAID.

Comparison: Hardware vs Software RAID

FeatureSoftware RAIDHardware RAID
Software RAID is part of OS, so no need to spend extract money.
The software RAID works on partition level and it can sometime increase complexity if you mix different partitions and hardware RAID.
Medium to highLow
Write back caching (BBU):
The software RAID cannot add a battery. Hardware RAID can run in write-back mode if it has a BBU installed. With BBU pending writes are not lost on a power failure.
With the software based RAID0 and RAID1 performance is negligible. However, performance goes down when you use parity-based arrays and/or several arrays at the same time. The performance of a software-based array is dependent on the server CPU performance and current load.
Depend upon usageHigh
Overheads (CPU, RAM etc): 
The software RAID must use server's CPU and RAM for RAID software. The more hard drives means more CPU cycle will go to software RAID instead of your Apache / Postfix or MySQL server.
Depend upon usageNo
Disk hot swapping:
It means replacing hard disk without shutting down the server. Many RAID controller supports disk hot swapping.
Hot spare support:
A hard disk is physically installed in the array which stays inactive until an active drive fails, when the system automatically replaces the failed drive with the spare, rebuilding the array with the spare hard disk included.
/boot partition:
It is hard to make fail over with software RAID if /boot fails while booting the server. This can result into unexpected errors and data loss. However, LILO and FreeBSD loader can get around this problem too.
Open source factor:
*BSD / OpenSolaris and Linux RAID software drivers are open source. It means more people can fix problems as compare to a closed source hardware firmware. You can move, mix and match different sizes with open source software RAID.
Vendor lock in (open formats): See above.NoYes
Higher write throughput:
Hardware RAID with BBU may offers higher write throughput.
Faster rebuilds:
Hardware RAID with BBU may offers faster rebuilds as compare to software based solution.
Can act as a backup solution?:
Both software and hardware RAID cannot protect you against human errors or system failures or viruses. Daily scheduled and off site backups of your system are highly recommended. Use tools such as rsync, rsnapshot, tar, dump, restore and others to make daily backups.
Recommend usage+Low cost solution
+Better for RAID0 or RAID1
+Single server / workstation
+Perfect for home and small business users.
+No vendor lock-ins
+Do you run a mission critical cluster or setup?
+Heavy database driven dynamic site
+Do you want the highest performance possible?

Other Factors

Powerful Modern CPU

The performance of a software-based array is dependent on the server CPU performance and load. With today's faster CPUs, software RAID outperforms hardware RAID.

Can RAID Array Fail?

Yes. The entire RAID array can fail taking down all your data (yes hardware RAID card do dies). Use tapes and other servers that can hold copies of the data, but don't allow much interaction with it. Move your data offsite. Another option is to use two or three RAID cards. Combine them together to protect your data. This make sure you gets back your data when one of your RAID card dies out.

Hardware vs Software Recovery

My personal experience - recovering from software RAID is easy. However, sometime finding out exact hardware RAID requirements can be a nightmare. A good backup can save from RAID hardware incompatibility problems. Software RAID allows you to mix different drive and sizes. You can not do something like this with hardware RAID cards. With software RAID you can swap the drives to a different server and read the data. There is no vendor lock in with software RAID solution.

You Can Not Go Wrong With Hardware RAID

There is an old saying in IT - no one ever got fired for picking RAID controllers.

Use Both Hardware and Software RAID

Sometime you need to use both hardware and software RAID to get the best of both worlds. For e.g. set up 4 mirror pairs, 2 on each hardware RAID controller, and use software RAID0 to put it all together. This will give the best performance for database server. Here is another example from one of our DR site server (this box mirrors our 30+ production server files and database):
  1. Server chassis with redundant power supplies
  2. Intel or AMD Dual Core CPU x 2
  3. 16GB ECC RAM
  4. 24 hot swappable drive bays
  5. 2 x RAID PCIe / PCIx RAID hardware controller
  6. 4 x Intel 1000 PCIx Lan cards (bond them together)
  7. 24 x 1TB SATA hard disk
  8. OS - Pick - Linux / FreeBSD / OpenSolaris
  9. Filesystem - Pick - ZFS / UFS / Ext3 (we use RAID-Z)
  10. Backup software - rsync, rsnapshots and MySQL in slave mode.
Now you can configure RAID0 stripe across the three RAID6 arrays (8 x 24 disks) using both hardware and software solution together. This massive storage system is perfect for online live backups.


So which one is better software raid or hardware raid?
Short answer - None.
Long answer - It depends upon your setup and requirements. I strongly recommend running both with benchmarking software to find out your disk I/O. Test both solutions by removing hard disk i.e. fail a few drives. Try running system while drives are failed. Note down system load and errors (if any). Reboot the system. See if you can boot. Can you see your data again? Are you comfortable using tools provided with both solutions? See what works for you.
Finally, while choosing a storage always consider speed, reliability, and cost - pick any two.

A Final Note About My Personal Choice

I have been successfully using Linux and FreeBSD software RAID for several years for backing up my own data. I prefer to use software RAID to save money and to avoid vendor lock ins. All my personal data backup using the following hardware:
  • 1.5 TB USB hard disk - rsync and rsnapshot is used to make backup of all my servers and digitial camera.
  • 80GB x 3 hard disk software RAID using FreeNAS. Again, rsync is used to make all backups. I'm planing to replace UFS with RAID-Z under FreeBSD 8.

RAID Alternatives

Local disks on MogileFS storage nodes can be in a RAID, or not. It's cheaper not to, as RAID doesn't buy you any safety that MogileFS doesn't already provide. This is quite popular among the web 2.0 companies where lots of photos, images and files are uploaded by their users.
RAID-Z ZFS Storage is a data/parity scheme like RAID-5, but it uses dynamic stripe width. Every block is its own RAID-Z stripe, regardless of blocksize. This means that every RAID-Z write is a full-stripe write. It doesn't require any special hardware.


How to Deploy CVS (Concurrent Versions System)

CVS is a version control system, an important component of Source Configuration Management (SCM). Using it, you can record the history of sources files, and documents.

Client Server Architecture:-

CVS uses client-server architecture: a server stores the current version(s) of the project and its history, and clients connect to the server in order to check out a complete copy of the project, work on this copy and then later check in their changes. Typically, client and server connect over a LAN or over the Internet, but client and server may both run on the same machine if CVS has the task of keeping track of the version history of a project with only local developers.


A single project (set of related files) managed by CVS is called a module. A CVS server stores the modules it manages in its repository. Acquiring a copy of a module is called checking out. The checked out files serve as a working copy. One's changes to the working copy will be reflected in the repository by committing them. To update is to acquire the latest changes from the repository in the working copy.

• 'Module' - a particular set of files kept in CVS.
• 'Repository' - Location on CVS server where modules are kept.
• 'Revision' - A certain version of a file.
• 'Tag' - A certain milestone in a file or module's development.
• 'Branch' - A 'fork' of the module.

How to install CVS 

On RPM based distribution you can use YUM or RPM to install CVS.
rpm -ivh cvs
yum install cvs

Then you need to create a user who is responsible for cvs management.

User Creation:-

There are many ways of user creation in cvs.
The CVS server can be made to authenticate from a password file in the CVSROOT module. All you need to do is add a file into the CVSROOT module. Create a file in there, called 'passwd'.
Entries in this file should be of the form:
The first’s entry in this colon-separated list is the desired username to allow. The second entry is the password for that user, done in standard unix crypt() format. The third entry is the real UNIX user on the server that file operations will be done as (so, you can set up a user that can write to just the repository and nothing else). If you have apache installed, there's a utility called 'htpasswd' which can generate the first 2 fields for you. You can then add the tird field manually.

htpasswd /cvs/reposName/CVSROOT/passwd 

User Deletion

For user deletion simply go to the CVSROOT passwd file and remove the user name from there.

For disabling the user put a hash (#) make in front for the username.

Creating a Repository

Create a 'cvsadmin' user #adduser cvsadmin
Login as 'cvsadmin' 

cvs -d  <#pathToHomeDirectory#>  init

here pathToHomeDirectory is the path of repos wherever you want to be (you must have write permission to that location)
-d is for directory

It will create a CVSROOT folder under the reposName which contains various administrative files which controls CVS behavior

Deleting a Repository 

It is as simple as
1. #rm –rf #RepositoryName# (But it is not recommended)

2. In a sandbox if you issue
cvs remove -f file_nolonger_needed
cvs commit
this will mark the file in the repository as removed at the current and into the future, and it will remove the file from your current sandbox.

You should be aware that directories are not really managed by CVS so you can't remove them, but if you remove everything in them and use the -P on updates they are effectively removed.


When a remote cvs client uses the pserver method to connect to a repository, the client is actually contacting a specific port number 2401. It is default port for cvs pserver.

The server will start as soon as it see a connection request from the client.

Put a line in the /etc/services as
Cvspserver 2401/tcp

Now for authenticating you have to manually create “passwd” files under the CVSROOT.
Its format should be like this :-


If you want to give read or write access separately then you have to create two more files under CVSROOT manually named as “readers” and “writers”.

Readers contains list of users who can only read the repository
Writers contains list of users who can read and write the repository

** If same username listed on both the files then cvs gives him only read only access to the repository

User Privileges

Next thing you might want to do is only allow specific users (i.e. your developers) to write to the CVS repository.
To allow only certain users write access to the repository, place their usernames in a file called 'writers' in the CVSROOT module

Backing up a repository

There is nothing particularly magical about the files in the repository; for the most part it is possible to back them up just like any other files but make sure that no one is working at that time.

tar -cf #backupName.tar

Create a file "cvs" under xinetd.d as shown below.

[cvs@cvs ~]# cat /etc/xinetd.d/cvs
# default: off
# description: The CVS service can record the history of your source \
# files. CVS stores all the versions of a file in a single \
# file in a clever way that only stores the differences \
# between versions.
service cvspserver
disable = no
port = 2401
socket_type = stream
protocol = tcp
wait = no
user = root
passenv = PATH
server = /usr/bin/cvs
env = HOME=/var/cvs
server_args = -f --allow-root=/var/cvs pserver
# bind =


1. Replace bind = with the actual IP of your server.
2. If you want to get the logs in a separate file then define that as well. eg. log_type = FILE /var/log/cvspserver

Restart the xinetd server
service xinetd restart

4 Effective Methods to Disable SELinux Temporarily or Permanently

On some of the Linux distribution SELinux is enabled by default, which may cause some unwanted issues, if you don’t understand how SELinux works and the fundamental details on how to configure it. I strongly recommend that you understand SELinux and implement it on your environment. But, until you understand the implementation details of SELinux you may want to disable it to avoid some unnecessary issues.

To disable SELinux you can use any one of the 4 different methods mentioned in this article.

The SELinux will enforce security policies including the mandatory access controls defined by the US Department of Defence using the Linux Security Module (LSM) defined in the Linux Kernel. Every files and process in the system will be tagged with specific labels that will be used by the SELinux. You can use ls -Z and view those labels as shown below.
# ls -Z /etc/
-rw-r--r--  root root  system_u:object_r:etc_t:s0       a2ps.cfg
-rw-r--r--  root root  system_u:object_r:adjtime_t:s0   adjtime
-rw-r--r--  root root  system_u:object_r:etc_aliases_t:s0 aliases
drwxr-x---  root root  system_u:object_r:auditd_etc_t:s0 audit
drwxr-xr-x  root root  system_u:object_r:etc_runtime_t:s0 blkid
drwxr-xr-x  root root  system_u:object_r:bluetooth_conf_t:s0 bluetooth
drwx------  root root  system_u:object_r:system_cron_spool_t:s0 cron.d
-rw-rw-r--  root disk  system_u:object_r:amanda_dumpdates_t:s0 dumpdates

Method 1: Disable SELinux Temporarily

To disable SELinux temporarily you have to modify the /selinux/enforce file as shown below. Please note that this setting will be gone after the reboot of the system.
# cat /selinux/enforce
# echo 0 > /selinux/enforce
# cat /selinux/enforce

You can also use setenforce command as shown below to disable SELinux. Possible parameters to setenforce commands are: Enforcing , Permissive, 1 (enable) or 0 (disable).
# setenforce 0

Method 2: Disable SELinux Permanently

To disable the SELinux permanently, modify the /etc/selinux/config and set the SELINUX=disabled as shown below. One you make any changes to the /etc/selinux/config, reboot the server for the changes to be considered.
# cat /etc/selinux/config

Following are the possible values for the SELINUX variable in the/etc/selinux/config file
  • enforcing – The Security Policy is always Encoforced
  • permissive - This just simulates the enforcing policy by only printing warning messages and not really enforcing the SELinux. This is good to first see how SELinux works and later figure out what policies should be enforced.
  • disabled - Completely disable SELinux

Following are the possible values for SELINUXTYPE variable in the/etc/selinux/config file. This indicates the type of policies that can be used for the SELinux.
  • targeted - This policy will protected only specific targeted network daemons.
  • strict - This is for maximum SELinux protection.

Method 3: Disable SELinux from the Grub Boot Loader

If you can’t locate /etc/selinux/config file on your system, you can pass disable SELinux by passing it as parameter to the Grub Boot Loader as shown below.
# cat /boot/grub/grub.conf
title Enterprise Linux Enterprise Linux Server (2.6.18-92.el5PAE)
root (hd0,0)
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.18-92.el5PAE ro root=LABEL=/ rhgb quiet selinux=0
initrd /boot/initrd-2.6.18-92.el5PAE.img
title Enterprise Linux Enterprise Linux Server (2.6.18-92.el5)
root (hd0,0)
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.18-92.el5 ro root=LABEL=/ rhgb quiet selinux=0
initrd /boot/initrd-2.6.18-92.el5.img

Method 4: Disable Only a Specific Service in SELinux – HTTP/Apache

If you are not interested in disability the whole SELinux, you can also disable SELinux only for a specific service. For example, do disable SELinux for HTTP/Apache service, modify thehttpd_disable_trans variable in the/etc/selinux/targeted/booleans file.

Set the httpd_disable_trans variable to 1 as shown below.
# grep httpd /etc/selinux/targeted/booleans

Set SELinux boolean value using setsebool command as shown below. Make sure to restart the HTTP service after this change.
# setsebool httpd_disable_trans 1
# service httpd restart

APMP-ApachePhpMysqlPostgresql Installation


This post describes the installation of PostgreSQL-8.0.3 , Mysql-4.1.12 , Apache-2.0.54 and PHP 5.0.5 . from the source code distribution.

Command details to open

#tar -xvzf
#tar -xvjf

x -Extract
z-for gnu zip file
j-for bz file
f-use archieve file

1. PostgreSQL Installation.

$ ./configure
Prevents use of the Readline library. This disables command-line editing and history in psql, so it is not recommended.If the configuration stop and show the readline error,
use this option.)
$ gmake
$ su
$ gmake install
$ useradd postgres
$ mkdir /usr/local/pgsql/data
$ chown postgres /usr/local/pgsql/data
$ su - postgres
$ /usr/local/pgsql/bin/initdb -D /usr/local/pgsql/data
$ /usr/local/pgsql/bin/postmaster -D /usr/local/pgsql/data >logfile 2>&1 &
$ /usr/local/pgsql/bin/createdb test
$ /usr/local/pgsql/bin/psql test8

2.Mysql Installation.

$ groupadd mysql
$ useradd -g mysql mysql
$ gunzip < mysql-VERSION.tar.gz | tar -xvf -
$ cd mysql-VERSION
$ ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql
$ make
$ make install
$ cp support-files/my-medium.cnf /etc/my.cnf
$ cd /usr/local/mysql
$ bin/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
$ chown -R root .
$ chown -R mysql var
$ chgrp -R mysql .
$ bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &

3.Apache Installation

$ ./configure --prefix=PREFIX --enable-module=so
$ make
$ make install
$ PREFIX/bin/apachectl start

Replace PREFIX with the filesystem path under which
Apache should be installed. A typical installation
might use "/usr/local/apache2" for PREFIX (without the

--enable-module=so This is for accept the modules as Shared Module.

4.PHP Installation.
$./configure --with-mysql=

Mostly the paths will be

mysql path=/usr/local/mysql/
pgsql path=/usr/local/pgsql/
apx path= /usr/local/apache2/bin/apxs

This is used to set the path for php.ini.(if you want to change the default location (/etc/php.ini) use this option)

$ make
$ make install

If you decide to change your configure options after installation,
you only need to repeat the last three steps. You only need to
restart apache for the new module to take effect. A recompile of
Apache is not needed.

5.Configure Apache and php.ini

Setup your php.ini file:

$ cp php.ini-dist /usr/local/lib/php.ini

You may edit your .ini file to set PHP options.

Edit your httpd.conf to load the PHP module. The path on the right hand
side of the LoadModule statement must point to the path of the PHP
module on your system. The make install from above may have already
added this for you, but be sure to check.
For PHP 4:
LoadModule php4_module libexec/
For PHP 5:
LoadModule php5_module libexec/

Tell Apache to parse certain extensions as PHP. For example,
let's have Apache parse the .php extension as PHP. You could
have any extension(s) parse as PHP by simply adding more, with
each separated by a space. We'll add .phtml to demonstrate.

AddType application/x-httpd-php .php .phtml

It's also common to setup the .phps extension to show highlighted PHP
source, this can be done with:

AddType application/x-httpd-php-source .phps

Reference :





300 free softwares

OpenOffice - office suite
PC Suite 602 - office suite
AbiWord - text editor
Atlantis Nova - text editor
Microsoft PowerPoint Viewer - power point files viewer
Adobe Reader - pdf reader
Foxit PDF Reader - pdf reader
PDFCreator - create pdf documents
Doc Convertor - document convertor
Convert - unit convertor
Converber - unit convertor
Sunbird - calendar/organizer
EssentialPIM Free - calendar/organizer
PhraseExpress - speed up your writing
ATnotes - create notes on the desktop

Archive managers

7-Zip - compression program
IZArc - compression program
TugZIP - compression program
CabPack - compression program
Universal Extractor - extract files from any type of archive


Firefox - web browser
Internet Explorer- web browser
Maxthon - web browser
Opera - web browser
Avant Browser - web browser
Thunderbird - email client
PopTray - check for emails
Free Download Manager - download manager
FlashGet - download manager
WellGet - download manager
Download Master - download manager
WGET - commandline download manager
HTTrack - offline browser
WebReaper - offline browser
Yeah Reader - RSS reader
GreatNews - RSS reader
RSSOwl - RSS reader


ĀµTorrent - torrent client
Azureus - torrent client
BitComet - torrent client
ABC - torrent client
BitTornado - torrent client
eMule - p2p client
SoulSeek - p2p client
Shareaza - p2p client
DC++ - Direct Connect network client
PeerGuardian - IP blocker


Miranda - chat client
MSN Messenger - chat client
Yahoo Messenger - chat client
QIP - chat client
Gaim - chat client
JAJC - chat client
HydraIRC - IRC client
Talkative IRC - IRC client
IceChat - IRC client
Skype - VOIP client
Google Talk - VOIP client
VoipStunt - VOIP client
Gizmo - VOIP client
Wengo - VOIP client


AVG Free - antivirus
Avast Home Free - antivirus
AntiVir PersonalEdition - antivirus
BitDefender Free - antivirus
ClamWin - antivirus
CyberDifender - Internet Security Suite
Ad-aware - anti-spyware
Spybot: Search & Destroy - anti-spyware
Windows Defender - anti-spyware
SpywareBlaster - anti-spyware
Spyware Terminator - anti-spyware
Tootkit Reveaker - rootkit detection utility
Winpooch - system protection
HiJack Free - system protection
HighJackThis - hijackers detector and remover
Kerio Personal Firewall - firewall
Sygate Personal Firewall - firewall
ZoneAlarm - firewall
AxCrypt - file encryption
Simple File Shredder - securely delete files
PuTTy - SSH client
KeePass - password manager
LockNote - password manager
nPassword - password manager
Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer - identify security misconfigurations


Hamachi - VPN client
RealVNC - remote control
UltraVNC - remote control
Ethereal - local area network administration
The Dude - network administration
Wireshark - network administration
Angry IP Scanner - IP scanner
IP-Tools - IP scanner
Free Port Scanner - IP scanner
NetMeter - network bandwidth monitoring


FileZilla - FTP client
FileZilla Server - FTP server
EFTP - FTP client/server
XAMPP - integrated server package of Apache, mySQL, PHP and Perl
WAMP - Apache, PHP5 and MySQL server


Foobar2000 - audio player
WinAmp - audio player
1by1 - audio player
JetAudio - audio player
XMPlay - audio player
Xion - audio player
Apollo - audio player
MediaMonkey - music organizer
The GodFather - music organizer
dBpowerAMP - audio converter
Audacity - audio converter
WavePad - audio converter
Kristal Audio Engine - audio editor
Exact Audio Copy - CD ripper
Audiograbber - CD ripper
CDex - CD ripper
Mp3 Tag Tools - tag editor
Mp3tag - tag editor
Taggin' MP3 - tag editor
Monkey's Audio - APE compressor/decompre ssor
mpTrim - mp3 editor
WavTrim - wave editor
EncSpot Basic - analyse mp3 files


Windows Media Player - audio/video player
VLC - video player
Media Player Classic - video player
MV2Player - video player
CrystalPlayer 1.95 - video player
Zoom Player - video player
GOM Player - video player
viPlay - video player
DSPlayer - video player
VirtualDub - video editor
CamStudio - video screen recording
AviSplit - Avi splitter
Video mp3 Extractor - rip audio from video files
Free iPod Converter - convert all popular video formats to iPod video
MediaPortal - turning your PCinto a Media Center
The FilmMachine


Gimp - image editor
PhotoFiltre - image editor - image editor
ArtRage - image editor
Artweaver - image editor
IrfanView - image viewer
Picasa - image viewer
XnView - image viewer
FastStone Image Viewer - image viewer
FuturixImager - image viewer
Easy Thumbnails - create thumbnails from images
JoJoThumb - create thumbnails from images
iWebAlbum - create web photo albums
JAlbum - create web photo albums
3D Box Shot Maker - design quality box shot
FastStone Capture - screen capture
WinSnap - screen capture


Blender3D - 3D renderer
3Delight Free - 3D renderer
SketchUp - 3D modeling
Maya Learning Edition - 3D modeling


AutoIt - task automation
SciTE4AutoIt3 - text editor for AutoIt
AutoHotkey - task automation
PHP Designer - PHP editor
Notepad++ - text editor
ConTEXT Editor - text editor
PSPad - text editor
FoxEditor - text editor
Crimson Editor - source code editor
Elfima Notepad - text editor
Notepad2 - text editor
Nvu - HTML editor
Alleycode - HTML editor
BlockNote - web page editor
Weaverslave - web page editor


DeepBurner - CD/DVD burner
CDBurner XP Pro - CD/DVD burner
BurnAtOnce - CD/DVD burner
Express Burn - CD/DVD burner
Zilla CD-DVD Rip'n'Burn - CD/DVD burner
ImgBurn - ISO, BIN burner
Daemon tools - virtual CD/DVD
DVD Decrypter - DVD ripper
DVD Shrink - DVD ripper
Nero CD-DVD Speed - CD/DVD info and quality test


GSpot - codec information
AC3Filter - audio codec
Xvid - video codec
QuickTime Alternative - video codec
Real Alternative - video codec
K-Lite Codec Pack - all codecs

System Ulilities

CCleaner - system cleaner
xp-AntiSpy - OS setup
jv16 Powertools - system utilities
XP SysPad - system monitoring utility
What's Running - process guard
Registrar Lite - registry editor
WinIPConfig - replacement for "ipconfig.exe" and "route.exe"
Unlocker - file eraser
Eraser - secure file eraser
Undelete Plus - file recovery
freeCommander - file manager
ExplorerXP - file manager
Duplicate File Finder - find all duplicate files
Ant Renamer - file renaming
ReNamer - file renaming
Icons From File - icos extractor
Chaos MD5 - MD5 generator
HashTab - MD5, SHA1 and CRC-32 file hashes
Rainlendar Lite - desktop calendar
Weather Watcher - weather firecast
Subtitle Workshop - subtitles editor
Ant Movie Catalog - movie organizer
Disclib - CD organizer
Dexpot - virtual desktops
DriveImage XML - create partition images
MozBackup - backup and restore bookmarks, etc.
SyncBack - system backup
Atomic Cock Sync - syncronize your clock
Citrus Alarm Clock - alarm clock
TaskSwitchXP - Alt-Tab replacement
Launchy - application launcher
allSnap - make all windows snap
Sysinternals Tools - various system tools
StrokeIt - mouse gestures
Net Profiles - create profiles of your network settings
ResourceHacker - view, modify, rename, add, delete
Java Runtime Environment - java for Windows

UI Enhancements

RocketDock - application launcher
AveDesk - desktop enhancer
IconPhile - customize windows's system icons
CursorXP Free - change mouse cursors
MacSound - volume control
LClock - Windows Longhorn clock
Y'z Dock - application launcher
Y'z Shadow - shadow effect to the windows
Y'z Toolbar - change the toolbar icons in Explorer and Internet Explorer
Taskbar Shuffle - rearrange the programs on the taskbar by dragging
Visual Task Tips - thumbnail preview image for each task in the taskbar
Badges - put badges on any folder or file
Folderico - change icons of the folders
Folder Marker - mark your folders
Folder2MyPC - add favourite locations to My Computer
Microsoft TweakUI - system settings
BricoPacks - shell packs
ShellPacks - shell packs
Tango Shell Patcher - shell patcher
XPize - GUI enhancer
Vista Transformation Pack - complete visual style
Vista Sound Scheme - Windows Vista sound scheme
Royale Theme - visual style

Hardware monitoring/Benchmar king

CPU-Z - cpu information
CrystalCPUID - cpu information
Central Brain Identifier - cpu information
Everest - system information
SiSoft Sandra - system information
SpeedFan - hardware monitor
Memtest86 - memory test
PowerMax - HDD test
3Dmark 06 - 3D game performance benchmark
Aquamark - performance benchmark
rthdribl - 3D benchmark
Fraps - 3D benchmark, fps viewer and screen recorder
Prime 95 - cpu benchmarking
SuperPI - cpu benchmarking
CPU Rightmark - cpu overclock
Core Temp - cpu temperature
ATiTool - video overclock
ATI Tray Tools - Radeon tweaker
aTuner - GeForce and Radeontweaker
RivaTuner - video overclock
Nokia Monitor Test - monitor adjustmets
UDPixel - fix dead pixels


123 Free Solitaire - solitaire games collection
Arcade Pack - classic arcade games
Live For Speed - online racing simulator
Enigma - puzzle game
Freeciv - multiplayer strategy game
Tux Racer - race down steep, snow-covered mountains


SpeQ Mathematics - mathematics program
Dia - diagram creation program
Google Earth - explore the world
NASA World Wind - 3D virtual globe
Celestia - explore the space
Stellarium - planetarium


nLite - Build your own custom Windows disk.
VirtualPC - create virtual machines
grabMotion - webcam capture
iDailyDiary - simple page-for-a-day diary
Pivot Stickfigure Animator - create stick-figure animations
Wink - create presentations
Scribus - professional page layout
FreeMind - midn mapping software
Windows Live Writer - WYSIWYG blog authoring