NTLM Authentication: Challenge- Response mechanism.
In the NTLM protocol, the client sends the user name to the server; the server generates and sends a challenge to the client; the client encrypts that challenge using the user’s password; and the client sends a response to the server.If it is a local user account, server validate user’s response by looking into the Security Account Manager; if domain user account, server forward the response to domain controller for validating and retrive group policy of the user account, then construct an access token and establish a session for the use.
Kerberos authentication: Trust-Third-Party Scheme.
Kerberos authentication provides a mechanism for mutual authentication between a client and a server on an open network.The three heads of Kerberos comprise the Key Distribution Center (KDC), the client user and the server with the desired service to access. The KDC is installed as part of the domain controller and performs two service functions: the Authentication Service (AS) and the Ticket-Granting Service (TGS). When the client user log on to the network, it request a Ticket Grant Ticket(TGT) from the AS in the user’s domain; then when client want to access the network resources, it presents the TGT, an authenticator and Server Principal Name(SPN) of the target server, contact the TGS in the service account domain to retrive a session ticket for future communication w/ the network service, once the target server validate the authenticator, it create an access token for the client user.